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Discussing Coral Bleaching in Padang with Dr. Quinn

Coral bleaching is one of the many impacts of global warming. A report by Bali Daily states that coral bleaching is recorded in 20 areas across Indonesia including Aceh, Padang, the Thousand Islands National Park, Karimun Jawa National Park, and Bali.

In another report, the Coralwatch Foundation states that the worst coral bleaching happens in Sumatera and Sulawesi.

Interested in this topic, American Fulbright Senior Scholar Dr. Norman Quinn, in a joint project with Dr. Ofri Johan from the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Indonesia, recently completed a resarch on coral bleaching in Indonesia. Dr. Quinn specifically wants to research the status of coral reef in West Sumatera after the 1997 mass bleaching event and the 2004 Tsunami. A provosional report of their project was presented at the 3rd Asia Pacific Coral Reef Symposium in June 204, in Taiwan, which was attended by over 500 researchers from 35 countries.

And recently, AMINEF talked via email with Dr. Quinn about his research project.
Q: Why do you choose Indonesia as your research site?

A: In late 1997, the coral reef communities on the Padang Shelf Reef System suffered an unanticipated massive coral mortality associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Surveys carried out in 1997 recorded 0% live coral cover). Prior to the event, 163 Scleractinian coral species from 58 hermatypic and ahermatypic genera were recorded with a live coral cover up to 83% . With Indonesian colleagues I wanted to study the resilience of these reefs.
Q: Why are you interested in coral bleaching? Can you explain more about it and coral and its dangers to marine ecosystem?

A: The event was reported as a “bleaching event” when a massive die off more accurately describes the event as all the colonies eventually died. At elevated temperature, scleractinian corals expel their endosymbiotic dinoflagellate (zooxanthellae) which renders the colony pale or white in color, giving it a bleached appearance and often results in death of the colony. In the absence of their zooxanthellae, which can provide the coral colony with up to 100% of its daily metabolic energy (DME) requirements, bleaching and recovering corals must rely on alternative sources of fixed carbon to meet their DME needs. If the water conditions have altered and there is insufficient preferred zooplankton then the coral animals die.
Q: How do you conduct your research? What is your research methodology?

A: The initial percentage of live coral cover (LCC) was determined using the line transect method (English et al., 1997) by recording the life form and genus of coral colonies along a 50m line parallel to the reef edge with five replications at depths of 5m and 10m. Three of the five permanent transects established in the early 1990s (Steffen, 2001) at both 5m and 10m depth contours were sampled counting the abundance of fish of each species and estimating the numbers of large schools of fish. Three 50m transects were laid along the depth contour at depths of 5m at two sites (Gabuo Reef and Pisang Island), 10m at two sites (Sipakal Reef and Reef Air) and 5m and 10m at two sites (Pandan and Pieh Islands). Depths of 5m were only surveyed at Gabuo Reef and Pisang Island, two inshore sites, because of very poor visibility at 10m depth, the result of high sediment discharge from nearby rivers.

The 50m line transects were sampled using two different widths. Large fish, >10cm, (e.g. Acanthuridae, Balistidae, Caesonidae, Chaetodontidae, large Labridae (e.g. Barred thick lips) Lutjanidae, Scaridae, and Serranidae) were counted on a 10m wide belt (5m each side of the tape). Smaller fish, <10cm, (i.e. Pomacentridae, small Labridae, i.e. Cirrhilabrus spp., Thalassoma spp.) were counted in a 5m wide belt (2.5m each side of the tape). Sampling was conducted between 9:30am and 3pm.
Q: What are your findings so far?

A: From the results of this study we conclude that the reefs of the PSRS are reasonably resilient. The coral rubble appears to be consolidating, corals are recruiting to the damaged area, and coral cover is steadily increasing. However, the coral species mix is different and coral cover has not returned to pre-1997 levels. It is our opinion that funds for coral restoration would be better spent on marine park management, and reducing particulate discharge from the Semen Padang, improving municipal sewage treatment and significantly reducing plastic and debris pollution.
Dr. Norman Quinn and Hendri Guswanto of Minang Bahari Foundation posing for a photo at Pulau Pandan reef at 10 meters in May 2014
Q: What simple things we can do to prevent or stop coral bleaching?

A: Reduce your carbon footprint and influence politicians to work to reduce national carbon emissions.
Q: Apart from your research, what are your actual memories about Indonesia?

A: Friendly people, beautiful country, rich culture, tasty food, and terrible traffic!

Last Updated: Oct 12, 2016 @ 5:25 am
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